As Histórias por trás dos Caracteres Chineses

Uma tradução para Português de Portugal do texto encontrado na página seguinte: http://www.writtenchinese.com/chinese-character-stories/

21 de Novembro 2014 por Hollie no Blog, Culture Lessons

nu - mulher

Esta publicação leva apenas 2 minutos para ler!

Se não tiver tempo para ler a publicação agora, não se preocupe; pode clicar aqui para descarregar Chinese Character Stories PDF e lê-lo mais tarde!

Escrito por Anna de ZKW Translations. [Traduzido para Português por Jani Dunne]

Para melhor compreender os caracteres chineses, podemos estudar a sua evolução até à fonte, na caligrafia 小篆 (Xiǎozhuàn). 小篆 (Xiǎozhuàn) significa “foquinha”. É uma forma de escrita chinesa da época da Dinastia Qin (221 a.C. – 206 a.C.).

秦始皇 (qín shǐ huáng) foi o fundador da Dinastia Qin. Unificou os Sete Reinos Combatentes e criou o primeiro império chinês. O seu ministro 李斯 (lǐ sī) juntou os textos dos sete estados de forma a desenvolver uma língua comum, Xiǎozhuàn.

Visto que os caracteres Xiǎozhuàn se parecem muitas vezes com as imagens dos objectos que representam, pode ser muito útil, além de divertido, ver como os caracteres modernos foram evoluindo a partir dos Xiǎozhuàn. (Há estudos científicos sobre a memória e aprendizagem de línguas que provam que as histórias e as imagens são das melhores formas de aprender palavras.)

“mulher”

nu - mulher

O caractere da imagem acima é (nǚ). A versão Xiǎozhuàn lembra a postura de uma mulher ajoelhada. Antigamente, o estatuto das mulheres chinesas era reduzido pois elas eram obrigadas a ajoelhar-se perante os seus pais, irmãos, maridos e os pais dos maridos. Portanto, esta postura ajoelhada passou a ser associada às mulheres.

(rén) “ser humano”

ren - pessoa

Este caractere é (rén). Antigamente, apenas os escravos eram tratados por rén, enquanto que as pessoas das classes mais altas eram chamadas 君 (jūn),  (chén) , ou 大夫 (dài fū). Portanto, o caractere rén era um homem ajoelhado com as mãos a tocar no chão. Mas agora, rén é 人, o que representa uma pessoa de pé. Penso que esta alteração pretende indicar que todos os seres humanos têm dignidade e valor.

(dà) “grande”

dà - grande

A versão Xiǎozhuàn de (dà) é o caractere 人 (rén) com os ombros erguidos e de pé, com as pernas afastadas, o que pretende demonstrar o seu poder. Parece um cowboy do Faroeste, pronto a puxar da arma e a atirar. Mas o caractere moderno lembra um homem com os braços esticados, pronto para nos abraçar.

(tiān) “Céu”

tian - céu

A versão Xiǎozhuàn de tiān (tiān) é o caractere 大 (dà) com uma linha adicional em cima. Refere-se a coisas que se encontram acima dos seres humanos. A meu ver, mesmo um homem grande não é maior do que o Céu.

Se tiver outras formas de se lembrar de caracteres, pode partilhá-las connosco nas respectivas páginas do Online Dictionary. Pode desenhar imagens, escrever histórias ou apresentar outras formas engraçadas de memorizar um caractere. Basta visitar a página do Online Dictionary clicando nas hiperligações a vermelho nos artigos e partilhar as suas ideias!
Se lhe interessar aprender Chinês, espreite o nosso WWC Dictionary! Pode saber mais sobre o nosso Kit para Aprender Chinês aqui! Pode também clicar nos links abaixo para o descarregar directamente para os seus dispositivos iOS e Android!

Internet of Things, ou A Internet dos Objectos

Legendei este vídeo com o software da Amara.org, que é, diga-se de passagem, uma ferramenta espectacular. Só falta associar as legendas dos voluntários no youtube.

Para os fãs da tecnologia, caso ainda não tivessem visto um breve resumo sobre isto, cá está ele, em vídeo, com legendas em português!

Estou ansiosa por entrar numa casa assim.

Vejam aqui: http://www.amara.org/en/videos/BcqatxG7t6pZ/pt/1052448/

Novo tratamento para o Alzheimer recupera completamente a função de memória

[my translation from ScienceAlert]

De todos os ratos submetidos ao tratamento, 75 por cento recuperou a função de memória.

BEC Crew

18 de Março de 2015

Uma equipa de investigadores australianos desenvolveu uma tecnologia ultrassom não-invasiva que elimina as placas amiloides neurotóxicas do cérebro. Estas estruturas são responsáveis pela perda de memória e por uma degradação de funções cognitivas em doentes de Alzheimer.

Quando uma pessoa contrai a doença de Alzheimer, é frequentemente o resultado de uma acumulação de dois tipos de lesões: placas amilóides e tranças neurofibrilares. As placas amilóides encontram-se entre os neurónios e acabam por se tornar aglomerados de moléculas beta-amilóides, um tipo de proteína pegajosa que se amontoa e forma placas.

As tranças neurofibrilares encontram-se no interior dos neurónios do cérebro e são causadas por agrupamentos de proteínas Tau defeituosas, que assim criam uma massa grossa e insolúvel. Isto faz com que uns filamentos minúsculos, chamados microtúbulos, se distorçam, o que interrompe o transporte de materiais essenciais, como nutrientes e organelos que se encontram ao longo deles. Acontece o mesmo quando se torce a mangueira do aspirador.

Visto que não existe qualquer tipo de vacina ou medida preventiva para o Alzheimer – uma doença que afecta 343.000 pessoas na Austrália e 50 milhões em todo o mundo – temo-nos visto numa corrida para compreender a melhor forma de o tratar, a começar por uma forma de eliminar a acumulação das proteínas beta-amilóide e das proteínas Tau defeituosas no cérebro de um paciente. Agora, uma equipa do Instituto do Cérebro de Queensland (QBI), na Universidade de Queensland, desenvolveu uma solução bastante promissora para a sua remoção.

Com uma publicação na Science Translational Medicine, a equipa descreve a técnica como a utilização de um tipo de ultrassom chamado ultrassom terapêutico concentrado, que transmite ondas sonoras para o tecido cerebral de forma não-invasiva. Graças à oscilação super rápida, estas ondas sonoras conseguem abrir a barreira hemato-encefálica, que é uma camada que protege o cérebro contra as bactérias, e estimular a actuação das células micróglias. As células micróglilas são essencialmente células de remoção de resíduos, ou seja, são capazes de eliminar as amontoações de beta-amilóides tóxicos, que são os responsáveis pelos piores sintomas da doença de Alzheimer.

A equipa fez o relato da recuperação completa da função de memória em 75% dos ratos testados, não tendo causado quaisquer danos aos tecidos cerebrais circundantes. Observaram que os ratos tratados obtiveram melhor desempenho em três tarefas relacionadas com a memória – um labirinto, um teste que os leva a reconhecer novos objectos, e um que os leva a recordar-se de locais que devem evitar.

“Estamos extremamente entusiasmados com esta inovação no tratamento do Alzheimer que dispensa terapias medicamentosas”, disse um membro da equipa, Jürgen Götz, num comunicado à imprensa. “A palavra “breakthrough” (avanço) é frequentemente mal aplicada, mas neste caso julgo que realmente altera fundamentalmente a nossa compreensão de como tratar esta doença, pelo que prevejo um grande futuro para esta abordagem.”

A equipa diz planear o início dos testes com modelos animais maiores, tais como ovelhas, e espera conseguir pôr os seus testes com humanos em prática em 2017.

Clique aqui para ouvir uma entrevista com a equipa na rádio ABC.

http://www.sciencealert.com/new-alzheimer-s-treatment-fully-restores-memory-function

Take Friendship Seriously

I subtitled this video into English, because besides it being viral on Portuguese Facebook at the moment, the message is for this generation and the next. With singing humanoids and cooking robots just round the bend, let’s not lose sense of what we are and what that means: Human.

Here is the link to the subtitled video on #Amara. I will try to embed them to the video and repost it here, to make it easier.

http://www.amara.org/en/videos/Encv0Gt6ifA1/en/973822/

All the best,

Jani

Working in Portugal

I have translated João’s Facebook post because I think the world needs to know what is happening to honest workers (junior or senior) because of Austerity.
In short: company owners/recruiters have the right to hire and fire as they please, oftentimes without notice period (the independent worker receipt system is unfair on the independent worker’s side).
This is due to high Supply of labour and skilled professionals as well as laws that give employers more rights than employees. On an ending note, some people are lucky to get their salary at the end of the month (for months on end) and end up not leaving home or returning to their parents’ with their families, as other expenses are higher priority than wages.

Joao Carvalho

51 min

I don’t usually share personal stuff on Facebook, but I thought I should “vent” (let’s put it that way) a little regarding the time when I worked at PLM. I don’t mean to deprecate the company, nor to show pity for myself, I just want to know if this is normal in other companies, as well as to alert people who might be going through the same.

It has been a year since I left this company, but it was indeed an unforgettable time in my life. This was my first “real” work experience (not counting internships) after I completed my Master’s degree and, like many other people in the same situation, I started sending my CV out to companies in Aveiro [a university in Portugal].

I was invited to an interview and they thought I suited the role of System Designer, so they offered me a two-week-long unpaid trial period, after which I would find out whether I got a contract with the company or not. Virtually every worker in this company started off the same way. I’m not sure if this is entirely legal or not, but I took it anyway; seeing as I was unemployed and, worst case scenario (i.e. I didn’t get the job), at least I had some insight into what it’s like to work in a bigger company and I would also learn something new. Besides, I didn’t have much choice back then.

After a week, I got the impression that I would be staying in the company, but of course they still used up the rest ot the 2 weeks of free labour before they made things official. Over a month later, I still hadn’t seen any contract, so I started to insist on it on a daily-basis. After 1-2 weeks, it finally emerged. Of course it was handed to me along with an ironic remark — what kind of worker would think it is their right to ask for a contract after working in a company for about 2 months, including two unpaid weeks? (Seeing as the contract was only 6 months long)

This company tell you what time you come in, but not what time you can leave at. You only had to do a couple of hours overtime (besides the normal 8 daily working hours) and you never got a polite ‘goodbye’, but a “Leaving already? How come?”  And it was no joke. You would usually see people working until 9pm, midnight, 5 in the morning or even until the next day. And you would still have to go in at the same time the next day. Of course none of the overtime was paid.

It might have made sense if people did this out of their own accord — say, if they enjoyed the work so much they wanted to stay longer, if they were addicted to their job or because they have a passion for what they do – but it wasn’t the case. Workers did this because they were threatened that their contract would otherwise not be renewed. Deadlines for projects were almost always cut down to half the time required to carry them through. I got to the ludicrous point where I was asked to estimate how much time I needed, sent it to the boss, he approved it (and said I was being optimistic) and then somebody who had no clue about computer programing answered back to say that the project could and, in fact, had to be done in half the time, otherwise there would be serious consequences.

I don’t know if it’s possible to keep this rhythm up in the long-run for some people, but to me and to many others it wasn’t. After a few months without a day’s rest — because sometimes Saturday is a workday — and cutting back on exercising (because I had no time or strength left in me and it’s very important to me), I began to lose my marbles, both physically and mentally. Because I was physically extremely exhausted, I developed breathing problems and still haven’t fully recovered from them (because of this, I have had to turn down some good job offers, but others will come once I’m better). Like many of my former work colleagues, I often take pills for anxiety, which I had never felt the need for in any other period of my life. One of my colleagues even fainted in a meeting. He had a panic attack because he was feeling too much unnecessary pressure, seeing as he is such a competent and hard-working professional and I would even say he has a strong mind.

A friend of mine in the same job I had was suspended from work for 1 or 2 weeks (without knowing if she still had a job when she got back) for asking why she was paid less than her work mates in the same job. Why she was suspended? “You have no business asking around about how much other people earn” Are we living in a dictatorship or what? There are many equally ridiculous stories, but there wouldn’t be enough lines to write them and I thought I should just mention those in which I was present.

Knowing this has happened to so many other people makes me so angry. Knowing that, day-to-day, they are still as affected as I am by the completely unnecessary consequences of that period of our lives. I don’t mean to blame anybody, but I hope this helps somebody and that they can learn from other people’s mistakes. If you ever find yourself in a similar situation in your career or if you have friends who go through something similar, unless your survival depends on it, make a point of finding the courage to change the way things work, even if you are new to the company.  If this doesn’t work, simply walk away, but if you have the guts to do it (I didn’t), take it to court, because the legal system still works sometimes. Don’t let fear hold your silence.

PS: I didn’t mention any names during the post, to avoid invading someone’s privacy.

“You’re saying it wrong”

Living in London is fun. Why? What makes ANYTHING interesting? People.
I’m speaking against myself when spill out this belief of mine that “London is not the place to settle down.”

forever young

It’s too seductive; it’s too dynamic. You spend 30 to 60 minutes getting to and from work every day, which means that when it gets to 5 or 6 o’clock, or what ever time you’re out the door, you are most likely headed home to your PJs, a glass of wine and disappearing into the couch or you can be skipping a step once and again because your friends are ordering your freshly poured brew at the pub.

freshly poured beer

Sure this city is also a place for romance but its lusty citizens also enjoy the freedom of not bumping into someone easily when things have “gone wrong” and you “found someone more…” sexy and single and who will probably be too last week next time you see them.

Everybody moves (and moves on), everybody has a new job after a while and if you aren’t happy, you can easily change one of those variables in your life. That’s the charm in London: opportunity.

Something Must Change

At least this is what I gather from my foreign friends.

Another thing I’ve picked up on is their grammar. It’s no secret, don’t be embarrassed. Even a non-native English speaker has noticed someone else who’s saying “his” when speaking about a girl. It’s all right, it’s normal. No English speaker goes to Spain with crystal-clear Spanish either. (Remember this!)

English in Spain
So we must do something about it. What can we do? Oh, we can simply – and politely – correct them. If we do it there and then, they will remember more than if we slip them a list of verbs and pronouns. AND they will be grateful; as long as we don’t set their goals too high or knock them down for it.

The same goes for relationships, it seems. I’m no expert, what with my one-year boyfriend experience. But we can practise with friends and family. Things go smoother if we come out and say it. Say what’s bothering you and how it’s different from your own experience. In my case, I won’t offer to cook for someone else because I’m afraid they’d think I’m trying to give them a stomachache.  I can, however, fall in love with a meal someone cooked for me. It happens often. And I have no problem whatsoever in washing the dishes in return. Or teaching them English grammar, which I do sometimes.

Foodgasm

Enjoy London!